Abrahamic Faiths, Islam, Judeo-Christian Tradition, Religion, Values

How Often is Religion the Most Crucial Factor in Our Behavior?

A friend once told me he and his business partner refused to do business with extremely religious folks on the grounds too many of them were irrational when it came to interpreting the contract. “They don’t think straight”, was the way he put it.

He then told me of a real estate deal the two of them had cut with a Texas man.  Unfortunately, the man went bankrupt before he could pay up, so his debts were rescheduled.  My friend and his partner resigned themselves to getting paid very late.  But it was then the Texas man found God and was born again.

When my friend and his partner contacted the man, they found him filled with the spirit of the Lord and absolutely convinced the Lord did not want him to pay off his debts.  “The Lord wants me to put the past behind and get on with my new life”, the man said, “He has given me a second chance.  Hallelujah!”

I suspect many people, religious or not, behave irrationally when under extreme stress — such as the stress brought on by bankruptcy.  Yet, in the case of the Texas man, it almost seems his religion encouraged an irrational response.  I’ve been wondering about that this morning — along with some related questions.

To what extent — or in what ways, if any — do religions influence our behavior?

I think that question is surprisingly difficult to answer.  Of course, we routinely teach children the answer is straight-forward and clear cut.  That is, we tell our children they must learn our religions in order to become better people, which implies religions are quite influential.

Children buy that version of things because they are, after all, children.  However, by the time we become adults, many of us recognize religions are not always that influential in shaping behavior — even when someone says he or she has been hugely influenced by their religion.  As a practical matter, an adult who wants to accurately predict the behavior of an eighteen year old boy with his sixteen year old daughter had best take into heavy account many factors other than the boy’s professed religion.  A landlord is much better off checking up on the rental history of his prospective tenants than checking out which religion they belong to.  And many a woman who has married a religious man thinking that guarantees she won’t be abused by him has learned the hard way her husband’s religiosity guarantees nothing of the sort.

Most of us, by the time we become adults, have figured out thousands of clues for predicting what someone will do in a given set of circumstances.  Most of those clues have little or nothing to do with a person’s religion.

Yet, there are still some of us who, for one reason or another, never seem to catch on.  A friend of mine belongs to a small, non-denominational church run by a pastor who believes a conversion to Christianity cures any kind of criminal disposition.  Consequently, he has convinced several of his congregation, including my friend, to do such things as invite just-released-from-prison pedophiles to family suppers where small children are present.  In my opinion, both the pastor and my friend are foolish to think a conversion to Christianity, no matter how sincere, is adequate insurance a convicted pedophile will not molest one’s children.  The myth that religion is always the trump card — is always the most crucial factor — in someone’s behavior is still alive in many naive minds.

While religion can occasionally be thought of as the crucial factor, religion usually seems to be just one factor among many in determining how an individual will behave.  I think that’s very well illustrated by the life and actions of Mohammad Atta.  It’s often said religion was extremely influential in Atta’s decision to fly a plane into a tower of the Word Trade Center on 9/11.  Yet his personality, for instance, was probably far more important than his religion in motivating him.

Atta was an intensely introverted and closed minded person who, from and early age, retreated socially.  He grew up in a well educated but reclusive family headed by a father described as “austere, strict, and private”.  It seems probable most people would describe Atta as severely lacking in social skills or, very likely, anti-social.  For instance:

Atta lived in an apartment at Centrumshaus in Harburg, from 1993 to 1998. During that time, he had two roommates who in the end were “so aggravated” with Atta, who almost never cleaned, seldom washed dishes, and such behavior. Atta would walk in and out of a room “without acknowledging anyone else in it”. His roommates described Atta’s personality as “complete, almost aggressive insularity”.

As one might expect of such a person, he had no love affairs worth speaking of.  Although Atta was very religious, his personality probably shaped how he understood his religion more than his religion shaped his personality.  Thus, I think it’s fair to say his personality was most likely a greater factor in his murderous crime than his religious beliefs.

I have not tried to argue in this post that religion has no influence on our behavior.  Instead, I have merely expressed my hunch that religion is seldom a crucial factor in our behavior –even for very religious people — when compared to a great many other more frequent factors.  So, for instance, I suspect the Texas man who went bankrupt, found God, and then wouldn’t pay his debts was either weak-minded, or something of a con artist, but at any rate unreliable to begin with.  And that Mohammad Atta was probably more inclined  to murder by his personality than by his religion.  Yet, I am certain the issue of how and to what extent religion influences us is far more complex than I’ve been able to lay out here.

Perhaps it is even true there is no general rule for all people and we must instead examine the question on a case by case basis.  But what do you think?


Recommended:  Do Religions Teach Morals?

19 thoughts on “How Often is Religion the Most Crucial Factor in Our Behavior?”

  1. But then religion acts somewhat as an enabler either by giving meaning to actions or by taking advantage of personalities and weak minds.


  2. I have been wrestling with this for a long time; religion serves a social purpose as an external marker of legitimacy, of good intentions, of trustworthiness. Of Truthiness. But does it correlate to any of those things at all? Or is that a common social fiction?

    It’s an important question because people are desperate for reliable external markers of character. But my best guess on reality is that there aren’t any.


  3. That’s a very smart way of putting it. I think many things in this life are relative and we usually fail to see that and rush into blind judging of others just because we want to finish it up, nothing more and nothing less.


  4. I also believe that people might change their behavior once they start to believe in a certain religion or a certain belief, not because of that belief, but because they wanted something to be the trigger of change which they were ready for long time before even thinking to adopt that particular religion.


  5. @ Webs: I agree! I think that religion is a great enabler. Some people it enables to do ill. Some people it enables to do good. It seems pretty much up to the individual whether they use religion to enable them to do good or to do ill.

    @ DOF: Unfortunately, I agree with you there seem to be no reliable external markers of character. It therefore seems a bit puzzling to me that so many people do indeed believe religion is a reliable marker.

    @ Faisal: Your observation that many people change behavior when they adopt a religion — not because of the religion per se — but because of they were looking to change anyway — that strikes me as a deeply insightful observation. Thank you for that!

    @ SG: I think the notion that confirmation bias has a lot to do with how we interpret our religion is a very profound insight indeed! Thanks for blogging about that!


  6. Do you think it’s “religion”? I don’t. I think it’s faith. I think when one accepts faith as a way of knowing and understanding the world, the door is open for blatant dishonesty to be condoned as not only essential to the human experience, but ethical as well. That’s a huge problem when one grants one’s own autonomy and self-interest to one he/she thinks is the monitor of thoughts. I mean, if these people can be convinced that if they believe something “hard enough” with no evidence, then it’s automatically true, well then, what’s stopping them from taking whatever anyone else says on faith alone?

    Or, I don’t know, maybe faith and religion are isolated elements. Maybe a god existing “makes sense,” but they rationally know no one can sell them the Brooklyn Bridge. But when reason ends, myth begins. I guess it just depends on where the person allows reason to end.


    1. People have no idea what they are getting themselves into entering the Institutional Church…Unfortunately when people pray to a Fake Jesus and don’t have a true conversion…not by their act of decision making, but when and if God has mercy on their soul He will save them…Even so called Protestant Christians have been duped that just sitting your butt in a pew makes you a Christian. The truth of the matter is there is much hoopla and irrational religious behaviors and practices within all institution churches and The One True God is not interested in any of it…The IC is part of Mystery Babylon and is full of ungodliness and disgrace….To act religious is not acting with a Sound Mind and becomes in many ways, crazy, leading people into all types of altered states of consciousness. Common sense and free will go right out the window, while many become under control of charismatic preacher spouting off devilish doctrines, while the congregants become the prey….


  7. @Paul – My comment on a different article really belonged her. Thanks for your response to my page and starting the discussion.

    @Kelly – Faith is such a complicated issue. I think the religion and faith tend to interconnect though I know many people who go through the habits of religion without a real faith in their God whereas there are many people who are full of faith without practicing any religion.


  8. Hi Kelly! Welcome to the blog! 🙂

    I think faith might be one of the mechanisms whereby religion influences behavior.

    @ SG: You’re welcome!


  9. It’s certainly extremely complicated to say why anyone does anything. So what DO we know? Well, it’s safe to say religiosity isn’t a positive sign of rationality. Yet many religious people are otherwise quite rational, e.g. Sir Isaac Newton. So, as a 1st approximation, it’s irrelevant.

    Also it’s been experimentally established that it doesn’t correlate with ethical behavior. (At least as early as Milgram’s Obedience To Authority, 1963.)

    A useful analogy seems therefore to be to, say, extreme sports fan behavior. It’s not uncommon, it can be ritualistic, it’s hard for outsiders to understand, it varies in intensity across cultures, but is seen relatively consistently through the millennia, from chariot racing to football, and it has nothing to do with ethics or reason. The only big difference is we find that last part surprising.


  10. The teaching of life after death helps to uphold correct behaviour in society several religions teach that the way we live determine our lives here on earth after death. In this case of the christian teaching, it means will either be in heaven or hell.


  11. i believe that a lot of misinterpretation happens when people try to follow religion as they don’t grasp what the religion is asking them to do, for example the Texas man refusing to pay his debts because “Jesus told him not to” whereas I believe if he had read the Bible properly he would understand that if he borrows money from somebody he has to pay it back. and with the Atta guy if he had read the Qur’an he would understand that murdering even 1 innocent person means no entry into Heaven so these people I believe didn’t look into their respective religions thoroughly and with a open mind and so they got their own interpretations of the messages from the respective books.


  12. I came across this post while looking for open sources on my psych paper.
    The issue I have with your post is that you haven’t presented any data whatsoever… not even a tiny fragment of hard, indifferent data. If you looked at the plethora of research conducted on how belief influences behavior, you’d find that religious belief (or lack thereof) is detrimental to our decision making processes. For example, I just read a study that found a negative correlation between crime and belief of hell. In other words, the higher percentage of population that believed God was malevolent, the lower the rate of crime.


    1. Hi Luke! Thanks for dropping by! I think your “issues with the data” might in part stem from your misunderstanding the nature of this blog. These are my musings. Their main purpose is to prompt intelligent commentary, which over the years, they have done to my satisfaction. But I do not always back up my musings with statistics, only sometimes. Running down stats on all the things I blog about would sap a lot of the fun out of blogging, so I mostly only do it when I have time while writing a post. I hope this helps you understand why you’re barking up the wrong tree.

      By the way, if you are interested in exceptionally good blogs that focus on commenting on statistical studies of religion and related topics, then you should check out “Epiphenom”. I’ve followed that blog on and off for years, I believe it to be outstanding. Here’s a link to it: Epiphenom


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